CMX Quarterly Bulletin

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Mozambique Profile

Mozambique (Portuguese: Moçambique or República de Moçambique, is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest. It is separated from Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east. The capital and largest city is Maputo (previously called Lourenço Marques before independence).

Currently Mozambique is one of the fastest growing economies among non-oil exporting countries, with an average annual growth of 7.6 % over the last five years, based mostly on sectors such as agriculture and agro-industry, hotels and tourism, fisheries and aquaculture, transport and communications, banking and insurance, public works and construction, services and power generation.

The recent discovery of huge reserves of minerals resources, such as natural, gas and coal, combined with ongoing reforms and subsequent improvement of the business climate in Mozambique, provide good opportunities for the transformation of Mozambican into a Middle income economy in the years to come.

The current increase of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, mostly for the extractive industry and its related industries, agriculture & agro-processing and infrastructure will drive the country’s economic growth to over 8% annually in the next decade.

The year 2011 marked a turning point in the country’s economy, with the first overseas export of coal marking the birth of Mozambique as a world exporter of minerals, and paving the way for the country to secure its future fiscal sustainability through yields from natural resources.

The only official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, which is spoken mostly as a second language by about half of the population. Common native languages include Swahili, Makhuwa and Sena. The country’s population of around 24 million is composed overwhelmingly of Bantu people. The largest religion in Mozambique is Christianity, with significant minorities following Islam and African traditional religions.

Mozambique is a member of the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Southern African Development Community, and an observer at La Francophonie.


Land Area: 799,380 sq km

Population: 25.8m (2013, UN Population data)

Main towns

Maputo: 2,006,494

Nampula: 596,679

Beira: 441,865

Chimoio: 279,677

Nacala: 234,553

Quelimane: 216,339

Tete: 187,807

Lichinga: 183,923

Climate: Tropical and subtropical

Weather in Maputo (altitude 59 metres)

Hottest month, February, 22­31°C (average daily minimum and maximum); coldest month, July, 13­24°C; driest months, July, August, 13 mm average rainfall; wettest month, January, 130 mm average rainfall

Languages: Portuguese (official) and three main African language groups: Makua-Lomwe, Tsonga and Sena-Nyanja

Measures: Metric system

Currency: Metical (MT)

Time: 2 hours ahead of GMT

Public holidays: January 1st (New Year’s Day), February 3rd (Heroes’ Day), April 7th (Women’s Day), May 1st (Labour Day), June 25th (Independence Day), September 7th (Victory Day), September 25th (Armed Forces Day), November 10th (Maputo City Day—Maputo only), December 25th (Family Day)

Political structure

Official name: República de Moçambique

Form of state: Unitary republic

Legal system: Based on Portuguese-Roman law and the 1990 constitution, updated in 2004

National legislature: 250­ member Assembleia da República (parliament) elected by direct, universal suffrage every five years

National elections: October 15th 2014 (legislative and presidential); next national elections are due in 2019

Head of state: President, chosen by direct universal suffrage

National government: The president and his appointed prime minister and Council of Ministers; new cabinet appointed in February 2015

Main political parties: Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (Frelimo) is the ruling party; it holds 144 parliamentary seats; the main opposition party is Resistência Nacional Moçambicana (Renamo; 89 seats); the Movimento Democrático de Moçambique (MDM; 17 seats).

President: Filipe Nyussi

Prime minister: Carlos Agostinho do Rosário

Key Ministers

Agriculture & food security: José Pacheco

Culture & tourism: Silva Dunduru

Defence: Atanásio Ntumuke

Economy & finance: Adriano Maleiane

Education & human development: Luís Ferrão

Energy & Mineral resources: Pedro Couto

Foreign affairs & co­operation: Oldemiro Balói

Gender, children & social welfare: Cidália Oliveira

Health: Nazira Abdula

Industry & trade: Ernesto Tonela

Interior: Jaime Monteiro

Justice & constitutional & religious affairs: Abdurremane Lino de Almeida

Labour, employment & state security: Vitória Diogo

Land, environment & rural development: Celso Correia

Public works, housing & water resources: Carlos Martinho Bonete

Science, technology & higher, technical & professional education: Jorge Nhambiu

Sea, inland waters and fisheries: Agostinho Mondlane

State administration & the public service: Carmelita Namashulua

Transport & communications: Carlos Mesquita

Veterans’ affairs: Eusébio Gumbiwa

Youth & sport: Alberto Nkutumula

Central bank governor: Ernesto Gouveia Gove


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